Wednesday, 10 June 2015


Growth of population results in urbanisation as the rural areas will not be able to support younger generation, who require education, jobs recreation, etc. In view of this migration from rural areas to urban areas takes place.   Considerable migration is to large cities which provide employment in various sectors of the economic activities.  Rapid urbanisation creates civic problems.
By 2050, 70% of Indians will live in urban areas. There were 7,935 urban centres according to Census, 2011.  There were 37 large cities including Bengaluru.  It is difficult to prevent immigration to fast growing cities.  In Karnataka, 35% of the population live in urban areas.
Bangalore City has 38.8% of the Inter-state educated migrants, 29.2% in Chennai, 25.3 % in Hyderabad, 20.2% in Mumbai, and 19.6% in Kulkatta.  The local population in Bengaluru is less than 30% and about 70% of the population have migrated from other places in the State, other states in India, and other countries. Implications of large scale migration are; unauthorised developments, building violations, creation  and expansion of slums, high land and rental values,  shortage of water, traffic congestion, air pollution with about 5.2 million vehicles in Bengaluru, increase in criminal activities, sewerage problems, lack of parks and play grounds, and problems for urban governance.
To solve the problems in large cities, earlier satellite towns were formed, but without proper connectivity to the main city, the required utility services, and civic amenities. The Satellite Town concept failed.  Yelahanka Satellite Town developed by Karnataka Housing Board (KHB) and Kengeri Satellite Town developed by Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) failed to achieve the purpose for which they were developed.
The latest proposal of Government of India is the Smart Cities Concept. Provision of Rs.7,000 Crore is made in Central Budget-2014 to develop 100 Smart Cities that is about   Rs. 70 Crore for each Smart City Project.  This concept originated in the year 2008. IBM worked on the Smart City Concept.  By 2009, various countries started thinking about this concept.  The idea is to take advantage of the advancement in Information and Communication Technology.
Government of India anticipates following effects in due to Smart City Concepts:
Smart City is one that offers citizens reliable, adequate, and high Quality utility services that include round the clock power, water supply, and technology or ICT services.  Extensive use of   ICT will ensure quicker communication and information exchange reducing need for physical travel for basic needs including banking, shopping, booking tickets, and Conversing across continents.This will enable reducing fuel consumption, traffic congestion and air pollution. A minimum of 100 MBPS of internet band width and wide availability of wifi connectivity on demand are some of the essential features of the digital connectivity.
-More employment opportunities and economic activities.
-Improving Quality of life.
-Government of India has decided to develop 100 Smart Cities.  It is necessary to see that:
-The Smart City should grow on a sustainable basis only with economic activities.
Smart City is a settlement where technology is used to bring about efficiency in the use of resources and improvement in the level of services.  It is technology based governance. Top class infrastructure enhancement of quality of urban life through an integrated approach to urban planning and development.
Key elements of a Smart City are:
  • Energy
  • Water
  • Infrastructure
  • Waste recycling
  • Public safety
  • Healthcare
  • Education
  • Green Buildings
  • Convenient transportation and
  • Citizen services
  • Entertainment facilities
  • Education
  • Health care etc
To take care of climate Change effects, wiser use of natural resources is necessary.
The City to be developed as Smart City is to be identified.  Some new cities are to be developed in hilly areas and coastal areas. It is felt that Satellite Towns of Cities with 1 to 4 Lakh population would be appropriate.
The on-going Smart Cities in India are:
  • Amdavad
  • Aluva in Kochi
  • Aurangabad
  • Kushkera in Rajasthan
  • Maneshar in Delhi
  • Krishnapatnam in Andhra Pradesh
  • Ponneri in Tamilnadu, and
  • Tumakuru
In Karnataka, in addition to Tumakuru, towns that are earmarked for Smart City development are:
  • Bidar
  • Kalburgi
  • Bijapur
  • Badami
  • Pattadakal, and
  • Mahakuta
Rs. 70 crore has been earmarked for Tumakuru project, and another Rs. 70 Crore for Bengaluru – Chennai Corridor Project Clean Technology.
Government of India will select 44 Cities with a population range of 10-40 lakh, 9 satellite cities, with a population of 40 lakh or more.  Ten cities of  religious and tourist importance and 30cities with population range of 50,000 to One lakh.
In Karnataka, not a single City has population more than 10 lakh apart from Bengaluru according to 2011 Census.  Bengaluru is not eligible under Smart City Project with 84.25 lakh population according to Census 2011. There is a separate scheme for State Capitals and Union Territories.
Population of cities in Karnataka according to Census - 2011 are as follows:
Hubballi – Dharwada                           9.43 lakh
Mysore                                                 8.87 lakh
Gulbarga                                              5.30 lakh
Belgaum                                              4.88 lakh
Mangalore                                           4.84 lakh
Davanagere                                         4.35 lakh
Bellary                                                4.09 lakh
Shimoga                                              3.22 lakh
 Smart Cities Concept was implemented in the following Countries.
  • Vienna in Austria
  • Aarihus Smart City in Denmark
  • Amsterdam Smart City in Netherlands
  • Cairo Smart Village in Egypt
  • Dubai Smart City in U.A.E.
  • Smart City in France
  • Smart City Malaga in Spain
  • Malta Smart City
  • Songde International Business District
  • Yokohama Smart City Japan and
  • Verona Smart City in Japan
In the Western Countries Cities are clean, no garbage problem, have good Environment, and good governance to satisfy the requirements of Smart Cities.
What is anticipated in Smart City Project is ambitious as the ideal conditions required is difficult to achieve in our Country as per the recent experience including Bangalore potholes, garbage,  sewage ,traffic congestion, inadequate  civic amenities, etc,

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