Friday, 31 January 2014


Settlement of property among family members and others is a mode of distributing both movable and immovable properties and has been defined under Section 2(24) of the Indian Stamp Act and Karnataka Stamp Act. A settlement deed is a non-testamentary disposition,in writing, of movable or immovable property made
    a)In consideration of marriage,

   b)For the purpose of distributing properties of a Settler among his family or those for whom he desires to provide for or for the purpose of providing for some person dependent on him, or

    c)For any religious or charitable purposes.

Settlement also includes an agreement in writing to make such a disposition or where a disposition is not made in writing, any instrument recording, whether by way of a declaration of a trust or otherwise, the terms of any such disposition. The Karnataka Stamp Act has similarly defined settlement.

The essential ingredients are:
1)It is a non-testamentary disposition that is it is not a Will. As such it operates immediately on execution, whereas a Will comes into operation only after the death of its author.However, a settlement may also contain a clause for reservation of life estate.

2)The Act specifies it must be in writing; So an oral disposition is not a settlement. 

3)There may be an agreement to make such a disposition.

4)If it is not in writing, any record evidencing such disposition is also a settlement.

5)There must be a settler i.e. the owner of a movable or an immovable property.

6)There must be people that are family members or other persons who are dependent on the settler in whose favor the property is to be settled. It may be for religious or charitable purposes.

Trust Vs Settlement:
A settlement deed should not be mistaken for a trust deed. In the case of trust, the author vests the property in favor of its trustees, who manage and administer the property /properties as per the direction of the author for the benefit of third person/s called beneficiaries. The trustees will act only as per the directions of the author of a trust deed and the beneficiaries do not have any say in the management of the said properties.

However, in settlement, there is no intermediate person, like a trustee and the beneficiaries have complete control over the administration, management of the property settled in their favor and enjoy the property as absolute owners subject to the conditions of the settlement deed.

Will Vs Settlement:
Settlement deed is different from Will, since a Will is a testamentary document, which becomes operative after the death of its author, whereas a settlement becomes operative immediately.

Another distinguishable feature is that a Will is revocable and that any number of Wills may be executed by its author in respect of a single property during his life time, though only the last Will executed becomes operative. Whereas, settlement is not revocable and after proper execution of a settlement deed, the Settler relinquishes all his rights, title and interest over the said property, subject to the terms and conditions contained in the settlement deed.

Partition Vs Settlement:
Usually partition of joint properties is mistaken for settlement. However, partition constitutes division of properties between the joint owners as well as the division of joint interest ownership in the property. Thus, the division amounts to severance of the joint interest in the ownership of the common properties and the common property is thus divided among them. 

Each partner becomes the absolute owner of his share and each partner's share is subject to a pre-determined percentage, governed by either the inheritance laws or by the partnership deed as the case may be. In settlement, however, the property is owned by a third person and is settled in favor of persons who do not have any previous interest in the said property and the share of the beneficiary is as per the wishes of the settler.

Gift Vs Settlement Stamp duty-Registration:
There are marked differences between gift and settlement. Gift is not made for any consideration, whereas settlement may be for consideration. Likewise gift may be made to any person, whereas a settlement is mostly made in favor of dependents. Also gift requires acceptance, whereas settlement does not. The gift is revocable or may be suspended as per section 126 of the Transfer of Property Act on happening of any specified event, which does not depend on the will of the donor unlike that of settlement, which is final & binding once it is executed by the settler.

Settlement has a very simple procedure where the properties are distributed to the dependents or for religions charitable purposes during the lifetime of the settler.This avoid future misunderstanding amongst the beneficiaries/recipients.Settlement can be made only in respect of self-acquired properties.

The deed of settlement attracts stamp duty as registration of the settlement deed is compulsory. Article 58 of the Indian Stamp Act and Article 48 of Karnataka Stamp Act refers to stamp duty payable on execution and registration of settlement deeds. Since, settlement amounts to conveyance of property, the stamp duty payable is similar to that payable on a sale deed, i.e. based on the market value of the property. However, concessions are available in case of settlement made in favor of family members, i.e. Rupees One thousand as stamp duty and access of Rupees Fifty. Family members include the spouse, son, daughter-in-law and grand children of the Settler.

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Thursday, 30 January 2014


Purchase of Agricultural Land Involves compliance of venous statutes, in addition to the regular acts like transfer of property, registration acts, stamp acts, Indian contract act. There are various restrictions on sale/purchase of agricultural land, which are imposed in Karnataka Land Reforms Act.1961, Karnataka Land Grant Rules 1969. Karnataka Village Officers Abolition Act 1961, Karnataka Land Revenue Act 1961, BDA Act 1976 and Land Acquisition Act (Central) 1976.These restrictions on purchase,sale of agricultural land are applicable only in Karnataka, and many other states do not have such restrictions. We shall first understand the words agricultural land, agriculture, agricultural labor and agriculturalist. 

The word Agriculture encompasses aquaculture (fishery), horticulture, arising of crops, grass, garden products, dairy farming, poultry farming, breeding of live stock (animal husbandry) grazing. Any land which is used and capable of being used for any of above purpose is an agricultural land. Agricultural land does not include house sites or land used exclusively forenoon agricultural purpose. Verification of revenue records is necessary to ascertain whether the land is agricultural land or not.

A person who cultivates land personally, that by himself or by the members of his family or by hired laborers servants under his personal supervision or of his family member, is an agriculturist. Wages to the servant’s labors should not be in the form of share in the crops, but may be paid in the form kind or cash. A person who lives mainly on the earnings out of manual labor on agricultural land including the one who prepares agricultural implements is an agricultural labor.

Karnataka land reforms act 1961 has put certain ceilings on agricultural land holdings per family / per person. Family includes the individual, wife or wives, minor sons and unmarried daughters. The ceiling is ten units. If the family comprises more than five members, an additional two units per every member in excess office is allowed subject to maximum 20 units. In case of tenant, it is 40.units.

The area of unit differs with the class of the land. Land is classified in to 4 classes based on irrigation facilities. Land having assured irrigated facilities from government canal, government tanks by which two crops of paddy or one crop of sugarcane can be cultivated in a year is ‘A’ class lands. 1.3 acres of ‘A’ class land is one unit.

Lands with assured irrigation from government canal, government tank by which only one crop of paddy can be cultivated or lands irrigated by lift irrigation project of state government by which two crops of paddy or on crop of sugarcane can be cultivated in a year is 'B' class land.  2.5 acres of 'B' class land is one unit.

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Wednesday, 29 January 2014


It is the common view that the real estate market in Bangalore presently is not on a very strong footing since a large number of residential flats and commercial places are lying unsold for a quite some time now.

Properties are developed not only by the reputed property developers, but also by not so reputed developers and by the entrants to the real estate industry. The development activities are mainly concentrated on the north and south of Bangalore in view of the existence of establishments of I.T/B.T. Sector as well as the fast track progress of infrastructural work in these areas with the hope that their end products could be sold at much ease to NRIs and the people connected with IT/BT sector.

In view of the recession in the past couple of years, most of the flats constructed have remained unsold and it is difficult to know the number of flats unsold and lying vacant since there is no agency to compile the statistics about the real estate industry.

Housing needs being one of the basic necessities, keeping in mind their financial capacity, many people have restricted their requirement to one bed room (1 BHK) flats instead of 2 BHK or 3 BHK flats though one bed room accommodation may not fully meet their requirements. Considering the demand for 1 BHK flats many developers have started concentrating on the construction of 1 BHK flats to meet the requirements of a large number of people. The rise in property prices could be result of the sudden spurt in property prices on account of boom in the real estate industry during the early years of the decade.

The situation in the beginning of the present decade was quite favorable for the real estate industry. However from the year 2007 the market started showing downward trend and the sale of developed flats and the commercial spaces was affected. Experts in the real estate market feel that the current year may be brighter for the industry in view of the growing demand for residential as well as commercial spaces.

Though some people say that the real estate market is showing improvement, nothing spectacular is seen nor is it likely to be seen immediately in view of the continued recession. In view of the rising prices of all the essential commodities it is difficult for the people to think of buying properties or commit for buying properties now.

The present situation seems to be dim, looking to the market condition, particularly of the essential commodities. People are not interested to commit themselves to invest in projects to be taken up or those which are under construction, by the developers. The reasons for this attitude of the people are plenty. The main reason is that the projects generally do get delayed or prolonged inordinately, and the developers do not adhere to their promised time schedules for completion of their projects while they insist on payment of installments according to the agreements.

If there is no progress in the work as promised by the developers the buyer cannot be expected to continue to pay the installments as per agreements. Both the buyers and the developers do not believe each other and the result is that the projects are not completed and also in some cases, the parties go to courts for resolving their disputes leading to further delays in completion of the projects.Only when the developer and the buyer resolve their misunderstanding, if any developed disbelieving each other, things may move in a congenial atmosphere.

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Tuesday, 28 January 2014


Market Trend:
India, among the European investors, is believed to be good for investment despite bureaucratic hassles, shortages of power and infrastructural deficiencies. India presents a vast potential for overseas investment and is actively encouraging the entrance of foreign players into the market. No companies, of any size, aspiring to be a global player can, for long ignore this country which is expected to become one of the top three emerging economies.

Success in India:
Success in India will depend on the correct estimation of the country's potential. Underestimation of its complexity or overestimation of its possibilities can lead to failure. While calculating, due consideration should be given to the factor of the inherent difficulties and uncertainties of functioning in the Indian system. Entering India's market place requires a well-designed plan backed by serious thought and careful research. For those who take the time and look to India as an opportunity for long-term growth, not short-term profit- the trip, will be well worth the effort.

Market potential:
India is the fifth largest economy in the world and has the third largest GDP in the entire continent of Asia. It is also the second largest among emerging nations. India is also one of the few markets in the world which offers high prospects for growth and earning potential in practically all areas of business. Yet, despite the practically unlimited possibilities in India for overseas businesses, the world's most populous democracy has, until fairly recently, failed to get the kind of enthusiastic attention generated by other emerging economies such as China.

Lack of enthusiasm among investors:
The reason being, after independence from Britain 50 years ago, India developed a highly protected, semi-socialist economy. Structural and bureaucratic impediments were vigorously fostered, along with a distrust of foreign business. Even as today the climate in India has seen a sea change, smashing barriers and actively seeking foreign investment, many companies still see it as a difficult market. India is rightfully quoted to be an incomparable country and is both frustrating and challenging at the same time. Foreign investors should be prepared to take India as it is with all of its difficulties, contradictions and challenges.

Developing a basic understanding or potential of the Indian market, envisaging and developing a Market Entry Strategy and implementing these strategies when actually entering the market are three basic steps to make a successful entry into India. The Indian middle class is large and growing; wages are low; any workers are well educated and speak English; investors are optimistic and local stocks are up; the country presses on with economic reforms. But there is still cause for worries.

Infrastructural hassles:
The rapid economic growth of the last few years has put heavy stress on India's infrastructural facilities. Problems include power demand shortfall, port traffic capacity mismatch, poor road conditions. Only half of the country's roads are surfaced. The projections of further expansion in key areas could snap the already strained lines of transportation unless massive programs of expansion and modernization are put in place.

Indian Bureaucracy:
Although the Indian government is well aware of the need for reform and is pushing ahead in this area, business still has to deal with an inefficient and sometimes still slow-moving bureaucracy.

Diverse Market:

The Indian market is widely diverse. The country has 17 official languages, 6 major religions, and ethnic diversity as wide as all of Europe. Thus, tastes and preferences differ greatly among sections of consumers. Therefore, it is advisable to develop a good understanding of the Indian market and overall economy before taking the plunge. Research firms in India can provide the information to determine how, when and where to enter the market. The general economic direction in India is toward liberalization and globalization. But the process is slow.

Before jumping into the market, it is necessary to discover whether government policies exist relating to the particular area of business and if there are political concerns which should be taken into account. There are also companies which can guide the foreign firm through the entry process from beginning to end performing the requisite research, assisting with configuration of the project, helping to develop Indian partners and financing, finding the land or ready premises, and pushing through the paperwork required.

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Monday, 27 January 2014


Insurance is an agreement between two parties, namely the owner of a property (insured) and the insurer (insurance company), whereby the insurance company undertakes to indemnify the owner of the property the financial loss that the owner may suffer in case the property is damaged or destroyed by a cause for which the insurance policy is taken. Insurance is one of the ways to protect buildings against natural losses and vandalism. The types of coverage available include fire, consequential loss, personal property, public liability, casualty, and surety bonds, workers' compensation. The risks are covered only after the premium is paid and the policy liability is limited to the insured sum and for a specified time limit till the policy is kept alive.

In India, an insurance company has come out with a scheme for householders to cover various risks with a single policy protecting the members who permanently reside in the house, including domestic and electrical appliances. Another company covers the possessions against different disasters, including fire, natural accidents, explosion of gas cylinder, bursting of water tanks and pipes, impact damage caused by vehicles, riots, strikes, malicious acts, burglary and mechanical breakdown of domestic appliances and so on.

Title Insurance Policy:
Under this policy, the policyholder is protected from losses arising from defects in the title. Based on the enquiry the insurance company determines whether the title is insurable. This is the best defence of the title. The company will defend any suit based on an insurable defect and pay claims if the title proves to be defective.

Fire Insurance Policy:
This policy covers against direct loss or damage to the property due to fire. The actual amount, which the insured will receive depends on the actual loss suffered. Full reinstatement can be received only if the property had been adequately insured by payment of appropriate premium. If the building had been underinsured, only proportional sum will be paid. The value of the property is arrived at the reinstatement cost irrespective of any other value. Normally, the value of foundation is excluded.

Sometimes, an old building which is destroyed completely by fire cannot be reinstated in its previous condition due to restriction by changes made in the local municipal laws. In such a case, the insurance company may not compensate the insured of the loss suffered by him on the building cost that is not cleared. If loan is availed while purchasing a property, the mortgagee insists on the insurance cover of the property.

Earlier, the value of personal properties in a house used to be only 25 per cent to 50 per cent of the value of the house. At present, the value of personal properties in a house has increased substantially.

Public Liability Insurance:
This policy covers the damages that may be inflicted on a third party by the act of omission or commission The cost of insurance can be reduced in several ways like accepting higher deductible amount, installing security devices, installing fire alarms, and by comparing various terms and conditions issued by insurance companies.

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Sunday, 26 January 2014


Many homeseekers are skeptical about buying under-construction flats as the transaction comes with an element of uncertainty.Ready for possession apartments, which do not pose such problems, always command premium. However, carrying out the requisite due diligence and taking some precautions could help you land in an attractive deal, mainly in terms of the discount in price and certain other benefits.

For those buying a property from an investment perspective, an under-construction flat could offer good returns. Such investors can consider investing their money in a project when it has just been launched. Many developers offer to take the soft launch route-where the project details are circulated among a select few prospective buyers, with a discount on offer-before making a public announcement.

The investor can sell the apartment to a third party and benefit from the appreciation. The only point to bear in mind in such transactions is that they are done on the basis of the allotment letter alone the agreement is not registered and the stamp duty is not paid. However, it is a perfectly legal transaction.

The other advantage of buying an under-construction property is, obviously, the discounted price per sq.ft. The price of the property increases in line with the stage of completion. If a developer has launched a project before excavation, the discount could be in the region of 25%. It could shrink to 20% once which the construction is completed.

Pre-construction phase is defined as the period starting from the date of borrowing and ending on March 31 immediately preceding the year in which construction is completed. For instance, if you have taken a loan in June 2008 and the construction is completed in May 2010, the period from June 2008 to March 31,2010 will be deemed to be the pre-construction period.

Now, let's assume the total loan amount is Rs. 40lakh, borrowed at the rate of 10% per annum. If the total interest payable for the pre-period is Rs. 5lakh, 20% of the amount Rs.1lakh can be added to the interest component of each of the five years, starting from the year in which the construction is completed. If your house is self-occupied, the deduction on interest payable would be restricted to Rs.1,50,000 per financial year.

Also, it needs to be noted that deduction of repayment of principal amount can be claimed under section 80C only from the financial year in which construction is completed. While taking the decision on the purchase of under construction flat, keep in mind the developments likely to take place in and around the area, in terms of infrastructure projects as well as other amenities like malls, schools and healthcare facilities expected to come up in and around the area. Most important is to verify the track record, previous performance of the promoter before entering into the agreement.

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Saturday, 25 January 2014


The demand for one bed room, kitchen (BHK) has been on increase; the developers over the past few months have launched or are launching several residential projects in the south and north Bangalore Industrial areas. With the proper and reasonable pricing to the properties with 1BHK flats, the situation in the real estate market is likely to improve in the coming months.

In view of the high costs of projects, the affordability to buy 2 or 3 BHK flats in such projects has gone down to some extent. This might have caused large number of already developed flats in the past few years, lying vacant for a considerably long time. During recession period, real estate market was badly affected and as such there was a down trend in the sale of apartments. Added to this situation of 'No mood to buy', inadequate infrastructure and poor connectivity also affected the real estate market of Bangalore. However, the situation seems to have changed now in view of many infrastructure projects taken up by the various local authorities of Bangalore.

Bangalore is changing fast. Projects for widening of roads all around the metro, strengthening of city transport by adding large number of buses, construction of under/over bridges, construction of sub-ways are all in progress. The most eagerly awaited ambitious project 'Metro Rail' is scheduled to commence its runs by 2011. The metro rail project will certainly improve the connectivity. Better connectivity will also help the real estate market to improve. The much improved connectivity and good infrastructure will be a boon to the real estate market.

With the reduction of the size of flats to one BHK, the prices of flats have come down. There seems to be healthy improvement in the number of buyers of the reduced sizes of flats. The demand for such single BHK flats being high, the developers may even think of letting out the unsold flats on rental basis in case sufficient buyers are not found. This will not only help the people desirous of occupying flats on rental basis but also developers for getting some returns on unoccupied flats. The demand for residential accommodation will, to some extent, be met.

The demand being more for smaller units with one BHK, what will happen to the already developed properties with more than 2 BHK flats? The developers are offering various incentives for their properties and expect that they will be able to dispose of a good number of such flats in the coming months. However in the absence of data about the vacant units of the developed properties, it may be difficult to know about the actual number of unsold units. All efforts will have to be made by the developers to persuade the prospective buyers, for disposing of their developed flats, instead of keeping them vacant by offering all possible and practical concessions like deferred payments, affordable EMIs etc. in prices instead of offering various luxurious benefits.

With the availability of comparatively easy funds by way of loans at lower rates of interest, lowering the sizes of apartments from 2 BHK 3 BHK to 1 BHK, lowering the property rates by correcting the price structure, improvements in the job market, it looks like the real estate market may show some improvement in the coming months. However one will have to wait and see what will happen in the coming months. We may have to look for some concessions forthcoming for the badly hit economy of the real estate industry in the ensuing State/Central budget.

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Friday, 24 January 2014


It is an established fact that property prices around any city or town in a developing country will always be increasing. Industrial and commercial activities attract people to the urban areas in large numbers. The rising demand for commercial and residential land causes the cities to swell upwards through multi-storied buildings, and outward through the development of sub-urban areas. This observable fact is evident in all urban areas around the globe. Property prices are bound to increase along with economic progress. But the rate of increase can vary considerably from one place to another.

Persons who are considering fixed, short term or long term investments in urban and sub-urban areas should make a detailed study of the causes for existing prices in the particular area they have in mind. Speculative investments may trigger a sharp increase in prices though there are no specific reasons to warrant the rate of increase.A general guideline that can be applied to assess whether a specific rise in real estate prices at a specific place is warranted or not, is to check the proportionate rise in demand for industrial, commercial and residential areas around that place.

Property Development in Bangalore:
Looked among the largest growing cities in the world, Bangalore city has seen a sharp increase in property prices over the past couple of decades. The industrial development of the suburbs has led to the rise of a large number of affluent businessmen, professionals and upper middle class in the city, the majority of them not local residents.

The rapid development of the information technology (IT) sector is mainly credited for the high rate of increase in property prices over the recent years, but the real expansion started during the 1970s with the development of huge industrial areas beyond the suburbs of the city. This gave rise to increased demand for commercial space in the central business district of the city. The surrounding residential areas were encroached into and this resulted in the outward expansion of the city.

Locations that were once considered far outside the city limits have now become fashionable & lucrative residential areas. The success and expansion of the IT industry increased the demand for commercial and residential space within the old city area, and this led to the upward expansion of Bangalore through high rise structures, and the process is still going on.

Current Trends:
To ensure that the land is available at reasonable rates for a healthy development of the city, the state government is taking procedures to check further congestion within the old city limits, while at the same time providing infrastructure for proper development in the outskirts. Zoning restrictions have been implemented to thwart haphazard development. Strict action is being taken to curtail the nefarious activities of unscrupulous real estate dealers, who produce forged title deeds and other documents to fraudulently sell property that belongs to others. Even there have been many cases cropping up wherein government lands were illegally disposed of in this manner. While genuine property developers are encouraged, speculators have been restrained from indiscriminately raising property prices. The government policy is to ensure that property, whether built up or as land, is available at reasonable rates.

Another major development is the approval of the Central cabinet for the proposed Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited (BMRCL) which is planned to cover 33kms in two corridors.

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Thursday, 23 January 2014


At every conference, every seminar, every meeting, eminent speakers from the Real Estate Industry and Housing Finance Industry have been speaking about the affordable housing. It is a known fact that the demand for residential housing is ever increasing, particularly in the higher and lower income groups. Housing for the poor classes is always an issue, which remains unsolved, since no one is interested in taking up the housing projects for these people. Apart from the affluent class, middle class (higher as well as lower) and poor class, there is one class that is people below poverty line (BPL) which, it seems, has never been addressed. The demand for houses for middle and poor class is said to be quite high, but the property developers seem to be not very much interested in taking up any projects as the profit margin will be comparatively low.

Affordability is a relative term. It varies from people to people, even person to person. There are people who can afford to have house flat costing Rs.75crore and there are people who cannot purchase a house/flat even costing Rs.5lakh without raising a loan. They cannot pay even the interest on such loans. Now-a-days the loan facilities are available easily and people do try to have their own houses flats by raising loans. Of course, people in the urban areas, particularly in major cities and Metros, put themselves in 'search' mode and try to purchase a dwelling accommodation affordable for them.

The property developers organize, through their associations, periodically exhibitions, property Melas etc. in the major cities for promoting their properties. To attract the NRIs, exhibitions and melas are organized by the property developers in other countries, especially in the middle east.

As we are talking about affordability, who can afford is a matter that is perhaps decided by the financial institutions who come forward to offer loans. The affordability is determined on the basis of monthly income of the person, the job security of the applicant, collateral securities available, number of years the applicant will be in service before retirement, etc. Accordingly, the financial institutions work out the amount that the applicant can afford to pay monthly and the period for repayment of loan and interest here on.

The developers take up the housing projects in various parts of the city. The projects are generally designed to suit various classes of people. The higher class people have no problem of affordability. Number of developed flats/houses/sites will be available in the property market at the prices which may suit them. In most of the cases of this category, the affordability is not a problem at all as they can buy the property outright or through the financial institutions as they can raise loans without any problem. They buy the property which they can afford easily without any fuss about the EMIs.

Property developers are also more interested in this class of buyers as the deals are finalized quickly. The affordable housing about which we are talking, is applicable to the lower middle class and poor people as they are the main buyers. These people will be planning to purchase houses ,flats with the help of financial assistance from the banks and other financial institutions. In view of the high cost of construction, the minimum cost of flats, as we see from the offers made by the developers through the media, is above 15- 20 lakhs. This minimum cost is affordable only by the middle class people. Then what about the poor class, who cannot afford to pay 15 lakhs? Will buying the house by such class of people could remain to be only a dream?

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Wednesday, 22 January 2014


When warming up of the Globe has become the threatening reality to the inhabitants of the world, it is natural to come across various other follow-up ill effects or possible adverse impacts on mankind. Though large scale effects of universal magnitude are impossible to be arrested, some harmful influences could be warded off by following certain other scientifically proved measures or precautions.

Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun is one such harmful emanation. Human skin has to be guarded against it. Many recommended creams promise to protect the skin from the harsh rays of the Sun. Our Homes also do need protection against it. People have become aware of this. It damages the interiors. Sunlight's ultraviolet rays could prove to be destructive inside the house in many ways. They not only fade furniture and carpets but also affect upholstery and drapery fabrics. The ultraviolet rays make fabrics fade fast and fibers weak, reducing their lifespan. They make the wooden furniture unevenly colored and brittle. Paintings and art work lose their original colors due to the impact of ultraviolet rays. They make the carpets lose their original sheen, looking dull and lifeless. Even the fresh flowers in vases wilt in no time. All of them need special protection against ultraviolet rays of the Sun. This increasing consciousness is felt in modem homes that are generally designed featuring large expanses of windows and glass doors to let in more natural light.

Just as sunscreen lotions protect the skin, the sunscreens work for the window coverings. The right window covering can block up to 99percent of ultraviolet rays. They are available in a wide range of colors and fabrics. For every decorating style we choose, there are countless options available, that it is no less an arduous task than choosing the right sunscreen with the right SPF to suit the skin type. The higher a product's ultraviolet blockage rating, the better a home's interior is protected from ultraviolet rays.

Sunscreen shades generally come in two layers with tilted vanes in-between. The degree to which vanes are tilted determines the amount of light that seeps in. While a slight tilt offers a softened view of the outside, still filtering out the bad rays. Complete closure offers 99 per cent protection against the ill-effects of ultraviolet rays.

Sunscreen shades are perfect window treatment options when a room has too much exposure to the sun's rays. Number of home owners are following the trend of using sunscreen shades for window dressing. People have realized the advantage of using sunscreens for the windows. Installing a window covering with a high ultraviolet blockage rating can save home owners thousands over the years by protecting both the furniture and furnishing. Sunscreen shades come with different sun blocking properties. These are easy to manage and are almost maintenance-free. The most they require is to be dusted and washed occasionally. The ease of maintenance and its simple elegance had made these shades extremely popular.

In addition to their main function of keeping out the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays they help in other various beneficial ways. When sunscreens are used for our windows it effects a reduction in cost of air-conditioning. The reason is that sunscreens are believed to reflect up to 70percent of the sun's rays during summer, keeping the inside of our homes naturally cool. They also reduce the glare of the Sun. Sunscreens are useful not only in summer but also during winter. For they are helpful in retaining almost 25percent of the inside heat in winter, keeping us warm to a certain extent. They cut energy costs and increase the lifespan of furniture and furnishings.

Nowadays interior designers are very much after sunscreen shades. They are custom-made to the extent of matching the upholstery to the sunscreen shade of one’s choice to accent ones decor. 

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Tuesday, 21 January 2014


Interior Decoration art is not an elusive and impossible one to learn or acquire. And also it is not expensive so that more money is consumed, with some basic and fundamental tips and ideas, one could proceed without any hesitation or fear the great art of decorating. The only requirement possesses a sense of selecting apt colors and placing things among proper structure, design and color combination.

If you are a keen observer, then use your keen sense of observation to cultivate your knowledge of interior decorating and increase your awareness of how color and light, line and form and space and material shape our world. The first step to start any decorating project is taking an objective inventory of what you already own, the way you seasonally review the clothes in your closet, access the furnishings in your rooms.

Whatever the time projection for decorating your home - three months, six months or longer, you need to make a work-in-progress plan and set of series of reasonable goals. This simple written plan will help you remain on track.

Always balance practically with panache. In decorating terms, panache is that personal touch you give the ordinary, by turning it into something uniquely your own. Adding fringed shades to an average chandelier; placing a casual wicker rocker next to a prized antique or daring to paint walls a dramatic fuchsia when everything else is being are a few examples of how to personalize your surroundings with your own dash of panache. And the best thing is that this 'panache' or does not have to be expensive. A vast variety of wall finishes, wall textures, motifs, wallpapers, borders and price ranges can also add beauty and drama to the rooms without breaking your bank account!

Giving change a chance requires patience and trust. Just remember that all change even for the better requires a period of adjustment. Put your mind at ease about a few decorating misconceptions the most common one being that because your home is on the smaller side of your decorating budget is small, you will not able to create a luxurious ambience.

Many people who have small apartments have open and spacious looking interiors because of the right colors of veneers and lamination, along with the right selection of wall paints and fabric colors. And their interiors have achieved a stylish and chic look at a budget which doesn't bum their pockets. They are not deprived of living in a stylish house everyone dreams of.

Try some of these gender friendly tips:
For Master Bedroom:
• Keep floral prints to a minimum.

• Use contemporary versions of a floral rather than a traditional bouquet motif.

• Combine floral with more gender neutral patterns, such as stripes.

• Choose a handsome geometric design.

• Use solid colors and rely on textures instead of pattern to make a statement.

• Select simple tailored treatments for beds and windows.

For Kitchen:
Clean lines, open spaces, neutral colors and maximum accessibility to cabinets and drawers are integral to a kitchen's design. They not only make for a charming, contemporary style kitchen but provide easy access to utensils and worktops for residents who are wheel chair bound.

Living Room Grandeur:
• Cover the frame in a solid and the seat and back cushions in a print on top only. Then you can reverse the cushion for a solid look.

• Using three co-ordinating fabrics, cover arms with one, back and front with second and seat and cushions with the third.

• Try mixing textures, leather and tweed for a casual look.

For dining or occasional chairs:
• Cover the front in a solid or print the back in a check.

• Cover the seat in a solid and wrap the back in a different solid or coordinating stripe.

• Alternate fabrics on individual dining chairs.

Perfect Texture:
Texture in a home is conveyed through the look and feel of the fabric, furniture and finished surfaces of walls and floors. Texture refers to the smoothness or roughness of a material. Furniture texture refersto a variety of materials used in constructing furniture, wood, glass, wrought iron, wicker, upholstery. Surface textures are the materials used to cover floors and walls: wood, tile, stone, brick, carpet, wall covering, paneling or paint in smooth, rough, glassy or matte finishes.

Using texture to enhance a room's design.
• Rough textures: suggest casualness and informality reduce the appearance of ceiling height or wall expanse. Make color appear darker. Help to disguise dirt and dust.

• Smooth textures: Suggest luxury and formality. Increase the appearance of ceiling height or wall expanse. Reflect more light and make color appear lighter. Reveal dirt and dust. Discover for yourself the satisfaction of decorating your home on your own terms - smartly and simply.

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