Tuesday, 31 March 2015

Feng Shui for Cramped Space

 Feng Shui for Cramped Space

Feng Shui can be adapted to make your space look larger as your house reflects your personality and you will enjoy everyday your space if it is comfortable, cozy and beautiful.

Even if your living space is cramped and tight, you don’t need to sacrifice on your style and utility but make it multi-functional and beautiful by adapting the techniques of Feng Shui.

Every person, place and thing is alive with the universal energy called “Ch’i". Everything is connected by this vital energy which is always changing. When we integrate the Feng Shui principles into our live, we see and interact with the world in a new powerful way.

Practiced for more than 3000 years in China, helping building up the most appropriate environment for harmonious life. The art of Feng Shui is the art of placement and arrangement of space to achieve harmony with your environment.

This tradition, called Feng Shui, is both, an art and a science that aims to ensure that all things are in harmony with their surroundings. Its application ranges from planning entire cities and empires to placing a guest at the dinner table; from the orientation of high-rise office buildings, to the interior decoration and furnishing of a house or a room.

If you have space constraints and need to do something about it all you can do is re align the space, re-decorate and make the space look larger aesthetically.

  • Low rise furniture wherein you can store or display belongings, freestanding shelves help in making the space look bigger.
  • Maximize unused spaces with attractive storage and shelving.
  • Bring in more light, adding more light fixtures like rope lights; book self light, floor lamps, and wall sconces.
  • Use mirror opposite a light source such as a window to maximize the natural daylight and enlarge the space and to cover your couch and sofa
  • Enhance “dead alcoves”, niches, corridors, corners, and highlight them effectively through lighting or artifacts and décor.
  • Demarcate each area of the space by using floor finishes like a rug, installing screens or sliding doors, or carefully position the furniture.
  • Use lighter hues like icy blues, pale green, white and cream, butter yellow, pale lilac, the color palette is exhaustive and large so need to choose on the right shade and ensure it matches with your accessories and furnishings.
  • Use fabrics, and patterns, which are more towards monochromatic as tone on tone will make the space bigger.
  • Avoid blocking view to windows and doors.
  • Clutter tends to visually accentuate the potentially cramped look of small spaces. Work out your storage needs incorporating built-in storage designed to fit.
  • Aligning your interiors and space can simulate a feeling of largeness and counter the ill effect of cramped space and Feng Shui enables you to achieve it in a simple and intelligent way.

Monday, 30 March 2015

Develop your garden

 Develop your garden

People who are sensitive to the beauty of nature will find the garden to be a heaven of visual delights. There are different elements in the garden design. Gardens include many attempts in décor that add to their natural attractiveness, besides the usual flowers and greenery that are present.

Arches add to the natural contours of the garden better than many linear shapes would. Its origin goes back innumerable years in building construction. Used at entrances in the garden or in niches in walls it can beautify the place. Potted plants or planters can be kept in such places or statues will add variety. Sloping roofs, clay finishes and rough textures all add to the rustic touch in its simplicity. The same shape can be used with creepers in openings, a mosaic on the wall or the entrance to a gazebo.

Pergolas are made with columns or beams in which it is possible to have many decorative opportunities. A wooden pergola would blend with the environment as it is one with the surrounding foliage. Using granite, marble or concrete is another option. Elegance and beauty are the qualities which the stone lends to the garden. A pergola can be used to cover a deck though it may be partially exposed to the elements. Special pavements with inlaid mosaics, plants and statues as well as water urns could be under the pergola.

Columns usually play a utilitarian role in a garden but may be touched up to add beauty. The light post may be of cast iron with decorative surface work and the right shape should be selected. Trailing creepers midway up their length will look artistic. Stone columns that support pergolas and roofs can have ornate pedestals and capitals. If you have wooden pillars they should be sturdy ones. Half columns could be mounted on walls or could act as a frame for waterspouts, statues or mosaics.

Clay decorations can add a warm touch to the garden. Animal figurines, bells, birdbaths and lanterns will be ideal to beautify the area along with wind chimes and hanging objects. Water bodies in metal and ceramic containers with flowers and floating candles are a novel idea. Large gardens may include waterfalls and fountains with boulders and pebbles added in.

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Saturday, 28 March 2015



It is not uncommon that we do come across publication of notices in news papers concerning the property transactions. The reason for such publication is to make known to all concerned that a particular property is under process of purchase by the  advertiser and to give an opportunity to the affected party to raise objections, if any, against such purchase.
For peaceful possession and enjoyment of the property the purchaser has to excise proper care and diligence to ensure that property purchased by him is free from encumbrances, charge and litigation. Any laxity on the part of purchaser to conclusively find out as to whether the vendor has good and marketable title and the property is free from encumbrance would land the purchaser in uncalled for litigations but also financial strain.

Public Notice

At the outset, it may stated that issuance of Public Notice in respect of purchase of an immovable property is not a statutory requirement. There is no hard and fast rule as to the procedure an intending purchaser has to adopt to find out whether the vendor has a valid and marketable title and the property is free from encumbrance. The charge or encumbrance created under an unregistered document on the property cannot be discovered from the documents obtainable from the registering or municipal authorities. Charge created by deposit of title deeds, pending court cases or transfer of property under a will would fall into this category. To protect the interests of the purchaser upon purchase of the property and to avoid litigations, normally public notices are  taken out in leading and widely circulated news papers notifying the  intention of the purchaser to purchase the property in question so that the persons who have a vested interest in the property could put forth their objections for such sale supported by documentary proof. Such notices are generally published immediately after entering into a sale agreement with the vendor in two dailies, one in English language daily and other in a vernacular language daily which have wide circulation in the area where property is situated. The notice acts as an information or information or a caution to all the concerned to facilitate them to take such steps as are necessary to protect their interest.
A notice shall contain the intention of the purchase, description of the property with boundaries and the fact of execution of the sale agreement, if any. The notice invites the public having interest in the property to file objections are received within the stipulated time, the sale process will the proceed with treating the property as unencumbered with a clear rider clause that objections received after the stipulated time will not be acted upon. The notice must spell out in clear terms the intention of the party with no ambiguity whatsoever.
It is to be notice that issuance of Public Notice can at best be termed as a precautionary step since it as no binding force on any one having interest in the property to act in a particular manner. The interest party may not act swiftly in terms of the notice and enforce his right over the property at an opportune time. Further, there  is every like hood that the public Notice may go unnoticed  by the affected party However, the public notice would serve as an intimation to the public that the purchaser  has a bon fide interest in  the property and the interest parties, if any, for the said sale transaction. The purchaser in his own interest has to get the objections  scrutinized by an experienced advocate having knowledge in property matters so that he can avoid the likely litigations and embarrassment at a later after the purchase.
Section 55(1) of the Transfer of property Act. 1882 makes it mandatory that the seller is bound to disclose to the buyer any material defect in the property or in the seller’s title there to, which the seller is and the purchase is not aware and the buyer could not with ordinary care discover such defect, But the seller for obvious reasons may not truly disclose all the defects in the property or in the title. Therefore it is advisable that the purchaser of the property should verify and make of all the avenues available to him to find out that the property under consideration is free from encumbrance and the vendor has a good and marketable title.

Deemed Notice

The Transfer of property Act. 1882 puts some ones on the purchase and in certain cases the purchaser its deemed to have notice of encumbrance, Section 3 of Transfer of property Act defines Notice? A person is said to have notice of a fact, when he actually knows the fact, or when but for willful abstention from an enquiry or search which he ought to have made. Or gross negligence, he would have known it. According to Explanation I to sec..3 where any transaction relating so immovable property is required by law to be registered and accordingly registered, any person acquiring such property or any part of or share or interest in the property shall be deemed to have notice of such instrument from  the date of registration. The Explanation If to sec.3 stated that  any person acquiring any immovable property or any share or interest in any such property shall be deemed to have notice of the title. If any of any person who is for the time being in actual possession thereof. Further, Explanation III to sec.3 states that person shall be deemed to have had notice of any fact if his agent acquires notice thereof whilst acting on his  behalf  in the course of business to which that fact is material  Thus notice could be classified into (1) Actual notice when a person has the knowledge of actual fact, (2) information is available on proper enquiry and search, and (3) Notice to the agent of the purchaser, where the  information is given to or received by the agent in the course of his ordinary duties, whether  be communicates it to active  partner of a firm  has  effect of notice of the firm.

Purchaser’s Obligation

It is obligatory on the part of the purchaser to make sure that this vendor has a clear marketable title of the property is free from encumbrance. Most of the encumbrances may be discovered by verification of records at Jurisdictional  sub - registrar’s office and on verification of the purchaser to recorded registers of  Jurisdictional sub-registrar’s office. Registration of a document operates as notice as notice and the actual possession of the property by a person other than the seller also operates as notices. Therefore, it would be safer that the purchaser shall visit the property to ascertain whether the property is in possession of the seller. In case the property is in possession of a person other than the vendor, It should be confirmed whether the occupant will vacate the property before registration and the vendor has every right to get the property vacated from its occupants since the Specific Relief Act 1963 recognizes the possession as a notice and there are instances where properties are leased, but lease deeds are not registered.
Though not a legal requirement, Public notice regarding purchase of immovable property would immensely benefit the purchaser since the purchaser shall come to claimant over the property under consideration and if any objections to the transaction are received, the purchaser may request the vendor to sort out the issue before completing the sale transaction or in the alternative he may cancel the deal.

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Friday, 27 March 2015



Before starting any work, generally, the process of cleaning occupies, the priority. Similarly, before starting construction, the construction site should be thoroughly cleaned and prepared for construction. This is called purging of the site from evil effects.

This process requires a well experienced mason, who is as important as an Engineer. An inexperienced mason with his inefficiently may mar the fortunes of the residents of the proposed house. Many masons have correct understanding of Vaastu, brought by generations.

The masons should possess accurate tools to mark the directions and to measure the site. Their important tools, setsquare to fix, correct corners, intermediate directions, and plumb line to ensure perpendicular accuracy of the walls should be used with diligence. The same tools should be used until the construction is completed, otherwise, there may be difference in areas of the rooms and place in between parallel walls.

Marking directions:

First the mason should identify all the eight directions correctly, which is followed by cleaning and preparation of plot. The directions, south, west, and southwest must be elevated than east, north and northeast. Any pits, shallow places, wells in weak or unfavourable positions should be filled-up. The surface of the site should be leveled with raise in the directions of south, WEST AND SOUTHWEST. Avoid sites with anthills. Levelling and reforming, raising in the site must be done before starting construction, but not after, to avoid evil effects of Vaastu.

A well or bore well must be sunk in north east, east or north after the foundation is laid and only its water must be used for construction. At least, a sump must be laid in any of these directions. Do not store, the construction materials like bricks, tiles, wood, steel, stones, lime in north, east or northeast and instead use south, west or southwest for storing them.  

Starting of work:

Work should ensure that the excavation starts from northeast and proceeds towards northwest. Repeat the same process from northeast to Southeast and from northwest to southwest. This process should end by excavating the southern side from southeast to southwest. The work of foundation must start from southwest to southeast, southwest to northwest; southeast to northeast and end from northwest to northeast. Similar process is required for wall constructions. Importantly, at the end of any day, the walls at southern and western sides should be higher than the walls at north and eastern sides.

The temperature in the locality determines the height of walls, prefer high ceiling if the temperature is high and low ceiling if temperature is low.


Pillars should be square or cylindrical in shape but pillars at south east must be invariably square in shape. Main entrance should not face the edge of any wall, pillar or compound wall. Likewise there should not be any tree, well, sump, pit in front of the main door.

The northeast corner of the outer walls, compound wall should never be rounded off, where as it is permitted in other corners. Do not have arches of semicircular shape on gates located on eastern and northern sides, but such semicircular arches are permitted on gates located in south and west.


The flooring of the house should be laid so as to facilitate the flow of water from southwest to northeast. The level of doors should gradually go on reducing from south to north and west to east. The floor level of the rooms in southwest should always be higher when compared to other rooms in the house and it should be lowest at northeast. The flooring should be strong and firm avoiding any shallow sound.

If you are demolishing any old house, start it from northeast and store reusable items in southern or western parts of the site, since the work if starting from south or West, brings ill health to Senior male and female member of the house.

An experienced mason knows most of these basic principles who plays an important role.

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Thursday, 26 March 2015



Many kinds of roofs have taken shape over the years. Flat roofs are utilized for commercial and domestic segments and in multi-storey buildings. For industrial structures inclined roofs are fitted. For aesthetic appeal domes roofs are good.

Most people usually overlook the roof when looking at a house. Around 25 to 30 percent of the complete cost of construction is normally spent on the roof. Economical solutions for different varieties of roofs, such as flat, pitches and arched type of roof, are being developed by engineers.

Some commonly used materials for roofs are corrugated galvanized iron sheets and color coated metal sheets that have the drawback of being rather noisy. They also need much upkeep as they tend to corrode in very humid places.

There is a great range of materials for constructing roofs. The important criteria when selecting a roofing material are maintenance, structural economy, durability, safety and aesthetics. Clay tiles, fibre cement sheets, colour coated metal sheets, aluminium corrugated sheets and reinforced cement concrete (RCC) is traditionally used and constitutes more than 50 percent of the market but it is not suitable for sloping roofs.

An architect says that RCC is commonly chosen for residential use but this slowly changing as other better options are available like Eternia and Colour coated Galvanized sheets etc. Architects in major metropolitan cities use more of a steel framework of pre-fabricated sheets that are filled with RCC. This gives quick setting roofing as against the traditional RCC material. It is an asbestos free fibre cement product that gives safety to the labourer by using polypropylene strips. These strips are a safety device for the labourer in case the roof cracks. It has a coating of a highly durable pure acrylic for long term use. Colours like terracotta red, green, off white and natural grey are available in this.

People today value time above all things and desire to complete construction work say within a period of six months. Therefore, they do not mind experimenting with new materials. When concern for the environment becomes of utmost importance in coming years, building structure will be lighter and quicker to build.

In Western countries inclined roofs are gaining  in popularity and look more attractive with vivid colours like terracotta, red and green. It is simpler to maintain them as flat roofs have the disadvantage of water collecting in the rains creating problems of drainage and mosquitoes. Wanting quick construction is the basic reason for experimentation with new materials.  

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Wednesday, 25 March 2015

How to effect changes in Property Documents

 How to effect changes in Property Documents

Documents are the record of various transactions; they contain certain terms, conditions, consideration amount, names of the parties to the transaction, date of the transaction, clear and complete description of the subject of transaction, so as to make them easily identified. For example, sale deed of a property contains the origin, flow of the title, present status, names of seller and purchaser, consideration amount, easementary right and brief description of the property with measurement, construction and boundaries. They are the permanent records, which are relied on for generations. Such documents must be legible, clear, readable, free of error and should not create any doubts or disputes. They reflect the terms of transaction for which both the parties have freely consented.

It is always advisable to prepare draft copies of the document for verification by both the parties in case of agreements and understanding. However, the sale deed should be in favour of purchaser since the vendor receives the consideration. He has to safe guard the purchaser’s interest in the property to be purchased. Any additions, deletions, alterations in the draft copies should be discussed by both the parties and another draft copy as agreed by both the parties is to be prepared.

The second draft copy has to be vetted by legal advisers to ensure that it complies with legal, statutory requirements. Thereafter only the final deeds are to be prepared. As far as possible, additions, alterations, cancellations should be avoided.

Additions and Cancellations

But at times, some additions, alterations, cancellations are inevitable which are discovered at the time of execution. All such alterations, cancellations, additions are to be done before presenting the document for registration. All such modifications should be authenticated by full signature of all the parties to the document. But signature of witness is not necessary for such modifications. Only full signature and not initials or short signature should be affixed. For cancellation, the original words should be neatly struck off. It should be signed by the parties to the document. Erasing fluid should not be used. Registering authority records such additions, alterations, cancellations page-wise on the document itself. This validates the additions, alterations, cancellation etc. Any modification done after registration is not valid and does not form part of the document. More over the document itself becomes invalid. Copies of the registered documents are maintained at registering offices and certified copies issued by such authorities also record on certified copies the number of cancellations, additions and alterations done before registration. They do not contain anything added deleted, modified after registration. So proper care should be taken so that all modifications are done before registration and full signature of all the parties are obtained to the transaction. If anything has to be changed after registration a separate rectification deed has to be executed.

Filling up blanks

Some documents may have blanks as the required information will be available only at the time of execution. Often, date of execution is left blank, until the date is finalised. Details of the demand drafts, cheques like number, name of Bank, Branch are also left blank. All such blanks have to be filled up before presenting the document for registration and should be authenticated by all the parties to the document or executor with full signature.


Attestation means witnessing the documents. Certain documents like will, agreement to sale, sale deed require attestation. Execution of the documents should be witnessed by two persons, who are major and of sound mind. Both the witnesses should affix their full signature and should furnish their address. Attestation is not necessary in case of certain documents.

Thumb Impression

There are many people who cannot sign. Thumb impression of such people are taken for execution of documents instead of signature. Left hand thumb impression (LTM) in case of males and Right hand Thumb Impressions (RTM) in case of females have to be obtained on documents for execution. Brief description “LTM or RTM of ———————— has to be written immediately below the thumb impression. As the persons who affix thumb impression are illiterate, who cannot read or write, the entire contents of the documents should be read over and explained to them and a separate note to that effect has to be annexed to the document preferably signed by an Advocate.

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Monday, 23 March 2015

Vaastu Shastra for Non-residential buildings

In this article what is explained is about the vastushastra applicable for educational institutions and some other non-residential buildings.
If the following vaastu principles are followed, it will help the teachers and the students to a large extent. The teachers of schools, colleges and other educational institutions mould the students for shaping their lives and help to establish them in life. Naturally the institutions should have the necessary environment for studying. It would be better and desirable that the students also know about this ancient science viz vaastushastra.

Vaastu principles applicable for educational institutions, in brief are as follows:

  • The land should be sufficiently big and rectangular or square in shape. The compound should be constructed for the entire land.
  • Water sources should as far as possible be located in the northern part or eastern part of the land.
  • The class rooms may be preferred in the north or north-east. The black boards in the class rooms can be better located in the east so that the teacher can face east while using the board. Teacher should avoid facing south or south-west. In other words the students can face either east or north.
  • The administrative block could be in the south-east or north-east side with doors opening towards north or east.
  • Library and laboratory may be in the west. The bathrooms & toilets may be in north-west. Store room can be in south or south-west.
  • The meeting hall, conference hall and main hall should be necessarily located in the north.
  • The principal's or Head Master's cabin should be located in south-west corner. The staff room could be in north-west. Accountants room can be in north or east.
  • The play ground should be in the north. Swimming pool could be located in north-east. South-east corner can be used for putting up a canteen.
  • The class rooms should have good ventilation and natural light or alternatively should be well lit.
  • If the institution has a hostel building it should normally be provided in south or south-west. The students should be made to sleep with their head to the south-east or east. Using north for sleeping (keeping the head to the north) should be avoided.
  • The dining hall should be in the west with its kitchen in the south-east. 
  • Gymnasium – heavy exercise machines and equipments should be kept in south or south-west. North or north-east should be left empty or least used for keeping heavy materials. Maximum opening should be provided there for allowing all the positive energies entering from the north or north-east.
  • Petrol pumps – The vaastu principles applicable for location of petrol pumps in brief are as follows:
  • The petrol and diesel storage below the ground level should be in south or south-west.
  • The cabin for the manager should be located in south-west or north-west.
  • The canopy should never be in north or north-east.
  • The north or north-east could be used for locating repairs, etc.
  • The emergency exit door could be located in south-west or north-west with a fire extinguisher beside the door.

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