Friday, 31 July 2015

3BHK & 4BHK Apartment for sale in Whitefield, Bangalore at Habitat Crest


Real estate business has become a vulnerable and an easy avocation to make quick and huge money by land grabbers, brokers and criminals by hook or crook. The dangerous, brutal and cruel face of ‘real estate’ business is exhibited in this case,” is how the Madras High Court Bench here began a judgement on Monday.

Ordering a CBI enquiry into the murder of Madurai-based businessman K. Jamal Mohamed in June, Justice N. Kirubakaran went on to state: “The case on hand only speaks about what is happening in the real estate business for more than a decade. In this case, the victim, main accused and some other accused are in real estate business.

“It also proves another important fact about entry of criminals into politics. The main accused, Sithik alias Mohammed Sithik, who kidnapped and murdered K. Jamal Mohamed (whose body was found in Kodaikanal on June 8) along with others, is a district president of Tamizhaga Makkal Jananayaka Katchi and his political office was used to detain the victim.

“Similarly, another accused, Abbas alias Karadi Abbas, is the south zone secretary of Social Democratic Party of India (SDPI). Accused Marimuthu is in-charge of Anaiyur locality in Madurai for Naam Tamilar Katchi (led by film actor-director Seeman). The antecedents of the above accused would show that they are involved in commission of offences.

“If such criminals enter into the political parties and become local leaders, the police cannot go near them easily for interrogation as they create law and order problem using their political clout.”The Judge said the deceased was the managing trustee of K.M. Allauddin Rowther Dharma Trust which owned extensive properties in and around Madurai.

Dispute over land

The victim had a dispute with one G. Ganesan with respect to ownership of 1.64 acres of land, worth over Rs.30 crore, at Arapalayam here.

Even as the issue was being contested before various courts, Mr. Mohamed went missing on August 31 and his body was found near Perumal Malai in Kodaikanal after the surrender of one of the accused in a Melur court near here on June 6.

Thursday, 30 July 2015

2BHK & 3BHK Apartments for sale in Whitefield, Bangalore at Habitat Aster


Indian architecture is unique both in its evolution and development. It has absorbed different strands of perspectives in design, utility and style. The interaction and impact from varied cultures were borrowed and incorporated. Some were amalgamated. And some retained their individuality and distinctness. But finally they all formed the captivating mosaic of Indian Architecture.

In the ancient days Kings were great patrons of art culture and architecture. They were magnanimous in allotting funds and spent lavishly for artisans and architects. The architectural arrangements of yesteryears evolved from construction of tents. Residences in olden days were basically small. The daily activities of people did not necessarily happen inside the built area.

The external spaces that are extensions of the house were also used for bathing, cooking and sleeping. They received guests and socialized in the courtyard and terraces. Hence the internal spaces had no specific function and there was no architectural differentiations of these spaces.

Those times the majority of people were predominantly agriculturists and that too in small scale level. The style of living was nomadic in nature. Constructions were simple and just enough for normal life activities and with a basic level of modernity. Daily hygiene, and access to well and water-borne areas acquired principal considerations and some houses had underground water storage facilities. Larger residences housed some administrative functions also.

According to the surrounding climate and materials available, the spaces were designed skillfully. The desert settlements had thick walls and slot-windows to absorb excessive heat and radiate the required warmth at nights which were predictably cool.

The bamboo houses of Gujarat constructed on stilts were flexible to withstand earthquakes and other natural calamities. The old South-Indian houses in temple-towns had big courtyards helping free circulation of air.

Support by Kings

The textual and literary evidences suggest significant and substantial forms, in the evolution of architecture and the various types of buildings only from the Buddhist period. The traditions and practices prevailing in the society and the culture form the boundaries of architecture.

The pool of techniques and expressions got enriched by the contributions from the Aryans, the Dravidians, the Buddhist and Hindu and Islamic dynasties that ruled the country. The craftsmen and artisans of the older times had conceived designs depending on the tastes and needs of the religious cults. This work patterns were passed down through generations.

As per the desires and inclinations of the clients, the architects drew plans on a cloth or parchment or any other convenient material. This was then transferred on the actual site. The Vaastu shastra became an integral part to achieve maximum degree of comfort and peace.

Architectural Diversity

The strong point of the country was the countless architectural diversity. Temples, monuments and palaces bear testimony to the enchanting diversity in all the glorious periods of Indian History. Buddhism brought with it the construction of stupas and chaithya, halls for prayer, the Rajput palaces had more elements of domesticity and the Muslim rulers built numbers of Mosques and Forts.

The Chola Monarchs in the South constructed major complexes and the Gupta period witnessed the peak in art and architecture. Then in quick succession came the invaders such as the Portuguese, the French and the English and they brought in a dash of Esplanades churches and Governmental structures.

The design of structures were primarily determined by social elements such as security and civic growth. The people and the rulers were constantly under the threat of war and destruction. People gathered together to live and this gave rise to cities. Therefore there was only a mild practical approach that was attached to design and construction. More than everything, the rulers were keen in establishing a personal legitimacy to build or to subject existing ones to remodeling.

The completed marvels tell tales of the Kings who constructed them. Exquisite craftsmanship was employed in the walls of temples and palaces through carvings and sculptures. The architecture of those times was entirely people oriented replete with considerable merits and additions.


Whatever may be the expression in architecture, whether it is classicism or modernity, it is shaped by external influences. The gradual development leads the way of life including day-to-day life activities, worship, religious practices observed during celebrations and death. The Mistris and Stapathis worked out the patterns becoming lead workers and engineers who also practiced the art of designing. Today's architecture is a natural corollary of those primitive models but embellished with modern additions.

The vibrancy and experimental tendency associated with design caused a typical upsurge in the practice and demand. City-construction goes by consumerism. Buildings occupy incompatible space arrangements. Managing the space between buildings is very vital. Any building should bear a relation to its immediate environment. Architecture should necessarily remain an art that serves best to the consumers.

Voluminous constructions are bogged down to 'multi-storeyed buildings'- a separate area of design. High-rise constructions come along equipped with suitable facilities like transportation to carry people from place to place. Fire and other safety measures have to be properly installed to help evacuation at times of accidents.


Structuralism in architecture is indispensable. There is a distinct difference between the senses of wellness created by each kind of construction.

In addition to the external appearance, people get attracted by a set of tangibles and intangibles involved in design and construction that has to be accounted for.

'Green architecture' is the need of the day. Long-term development in construction should progress in integration to preservation of the area and conservation of its resources. This is more relevant to India, for India is abundantly rich in energy and resources. Not only power and water, factors such as soil sedimentation and erosion should be prioritized. The life-cycle analysis of building materials gives us sufficient reasons for recycling. Though the topsoil that we use for buildings cannot be recycled, we could think of more afforestation and use of industrial wastes. The effect should be measured in terms of the damage produced by one building to the adjacent one.

Present Scenario

Present day consumers have immense knowledge and awareness. That influences the current trend. Due to urban-economics the demand for housing is constantly increasing. The architect has to be sensitive to the site and possess a consciousness to the Society. 

A design should have a good thermal comfort, simplicity and easy access. A balanced design should have a suitable bit of conflicting parameters comprising of the needs and wants. Though Architecture has its own share of challenges it undergoes its own sphere of evolution.

History is always inspiring. What we produce today, will be the source of inspiration to the coming generations.

Wednesday, 29 July 2015

1BHK,2BHK,3BHK Apartment for Sale on Electronic City, Bangalore at Prabh...


A report was published in the newspaper on 17th April, 2013 on the proposal of the Urban Development Ministry of Central Government to introduce Congestion Tax to be levied on the vehicles moving in the central areas of large cities. The intention is to reduce congestion in the central areas with acute traffic congestion affecting movement of vehicles , causing delay, air pollution, risk to pedestrians, etc. 

For this purpose, it is necessary to fix the boundaries of the area in which congestion tax is to be levied. An Origin -Destination Survey is to be conducted by interview of the vehicles moving in the central area to know the route taken from origin to destination. From this data it is possible to know how many long distance commuters move in the central area , the roads used by them, purpose of the journey, etc.

 If this data is analyzed it is possible to know how many vehicles may take alternate routes avoiding central area. The traffic volumes, from Traffic Volume Survey on all busy roads of the central area and environs , plotted on the map will show concentration of traffic. It is also possible to get traffic volumes, from Traffic Management Centre of the Traffic Police, which may also be plotted on the map. The two maps are to be compared and boundaries of the heavy traffic concentration area identified for the purpose of levy of Congestion Tax . 

In case of Bangalore , it is mentioned that earlier there were two central areas in the City; City Central Area and the Cantonment Central Area separated by Cubbon Park and public buildings. Later, expansion of commercial areas merged the two central areas to become a single bigger central area

It is necessary to suggest to the vehicle owners the alternate routes to be taken to avoid the central area where congestion tax is to be paid. The alternate routes to be suggested should be wider roads and not narrow roads. Calm residential areas should be avoided in selecting alternate routes. The additional distance to be covered in the alternate routes should not be more than 15%. If it is more than this limit , vehicles will be forced to use the central area and pay the congestion tax.

The intention to reduce traffic congestion by levy of congestion tax is good. But, it is difficult to achieve the objective in view of the following points : 

To avoid payment of congestion tax , the vehicles may not take round about routes involving longer travel distances and additional consumption of petrol/diesel. Long distance commuters will pay the congestion tax as another tax burden. The traffic intensity in the already congested roads in the central area will continue to increase in spite of levy of congestion tax due to further increase in private vehicles, intense development of vehicles attracting commercial buildings, etc. 

People living in the central area will have to pay congestion tax regularly. Why they should be taxed as they have nothing to do with the increase in number of private vehicles?. Government will have to consider this point and exempt them from paying congestion tax by issue of passes to them. 

To enforce levy of congestion tax at the entry points of the central area , officials to collect the levy / ticket vending machines are to be organized. Corruption is not ruled out in the enforcement of the scheme.

Levy of congestion tax will not reduce traffic congestion as expected. Government/agency may get income from congestion tax. The long term solution for reducing traffic congestion is to implement at the earliest the Metro Rail network which is badly delayed by BMRCL, a public agency. If the project was entrusted to a foreign company experienced in metro rail work on PPP basis , the complete net work would have been in operation by now. It was possible to save the heavy public investment to the extent of many thousands of crore rupees. However, it is necessary to complete the metro rail network quickly and take metro routes in the remaining heavy traffic corridors not covered. 

Sri. Siddaramiah, the new Chief Minister of Karnataka , who took charge on 13th may, 2013 mentioned that it is necessary to introduce Mono Rail also. It is a very good intention of the new Chief Minister in the interest of solving problems of commuters. Mono Rail network as a feeder service to Metro Rail network ,and as a rapid transit system in the corridors not covered by metro rail net work may be introduced on PPP basis. The proposal for Mono Rail for Bangalore already worked out may be reviewed and a decision taken early. 

Hope, Government with an active and public service minded Chief Minister like Sri. Siddaramiah , will take early action to introduce Mono Rail in addition to Metro Rail for proper transportation facility in Bangalore.

Tuesday, 28 July 2015

2BHK,3BHK Apartment for Sale on Rajarajeshwari Nagar, Bangalore at GRC B...


Sometimes you need to get away from it all to a weekend retreat where you can relax and have a pleasant, restful time. What better way than to have a farmhouse where you can have a change from the busy city life. How can you make the farm house more appealing? It should be different in some way and should give you a whiff of the outdoors combined with the comfort of the indoors. Wood and stone are two elements that have multiple creative uses in embellishing your place.

Cladding of stone, terracotta or bricks in the foyer, lobby or dining room will make even the dullest of places to become attractive. A warm and inviting stone cladding for the fire place is a good idea. Exposed bricks in the wall add a rustic ambience to the home. If you want a reminder of the Mediterranean, you can have a title mosaic embedded in a wall. More stone will look good in patios, staircases and columns. A backdrop of luxurious furnishings and furniture will complete the picture. The use of wood will definitely add charm, whether in the cladding or in rafters. Wooden beams and columns with cladding are ideal to give a countryside atmosphere.

Windows are another feature that will increase the beauty by bringing in a view of the natural surroundings. You can have all types of them, whether large ones with fan lights, picture windows or bay windows they will fill the house with sunlight. If you have a courtyard, you can have French windows with doors opening into it. For a sloping roof, dormer windows are best. It gives the house a happy, healthy air.

Since you are there to have a leisurely time, pick comfortable furniture like large loungers and oversized couches. A long dining table to while away the hours in conversation over meals would be good. The theme of the farmhouse has to be carefully chosen, whether it is a haveli theme which requires colonial or Rajasthani style of furniture, or a western rustic theme with a log highlight. You must get furnishings that go with the theme. Bright coloured ones for the western theme against a neutral background are best. Include options for storage.

You can make the farmhouse an ideal place that fits your dreams. With romantic features like big balconies, a fish pond, bright skylights, a sun room, a meditation room, a spa with a whirlpool tub or a lookout tower, you can really let yourself go. A well-equipped kitchen is also essential. In all, the farmhouse should be the perfect place to rest and have a thrilling time simultaneously.

Friday, 24 July 2015

1BHK, 2BHK & 3BHK Apartments for sale in Sarjapur, Bangalore at Zonasha ...



The Indian retail industry no longer consists of irregular family run efforts but has evolved into an organized well managed business. It is of critical importance that this beginning be properly channeled in a coordinated way so that it grows. This sector has much potential for growth as only 4% ofIndia's retail industry consists of the organized sector unlike Malaysia where it is 55%, Thailand where it is 40% and 20% in China. Consumers however have now shown tastes and preferences for an enjoyable shopping experience along with this growth. Now there is more than 40 million sq ft of retail space operating over 130 malls in this country. Within the next 3 years this development would be more than 100 million sq ft in the fast growing organized retail and within the next 5 years it would average 200 million. The success of development now depends on the factors of differentiation and convenience as there is such a large scale of mall supply.

The condition of development of malls is well summed up in the words of the famous General Georges. Patton - 'If everyone is thinking alike, then someone isn't thinking.' There would be a peculiar set of challenges in the operation of each development incumbent depending upon size, location, ownership patterns and positioning. There would be sharp competition among these malls and the ability of a mall to adjust to the needs of the consumer and provide the needed experience and merchandise to its customers would decide its survival.

The efficient management of the business would decide the success of malls. Just as airline passengers choose which airline to fly according to the services provided, developing a mall is also akin to establishing a business unit. There are many aspects to the management of retail space beginning with the planning, design, infrastructure, trade mix and tenant mix, operations, planning peak hours and seasons, safety, preparing for emergencies and marketing. The success and sustenance of the mall depends on each ofthese.

First of all the development has to be rightly positioned and it is necessary to pinpoint the personality of the development and specify the target audience with their requirements. Retailers should be given the benefit of right spaces for them in the mall and consumers should be given an outstanding shopping experience. The customers should be given enough reason to make them walk through the mall and each zone in it should be exciting and enjoyable for them. This would keep the cycle of retailer attraction and customer satisfaction going. A mall of an average size would produce INR 6 billion annually and give employment to 800-1000 people. The activity behind the scenes should be well-planned so that it does not interfere with the experience of the customer. Chaos can be avoided by planning services and back end infrastructure in advance. Time spent by the consumer in parking should also be reduced to the minimum by careful planning on the part of the retailer.

A mall should be well-planned so that it can take care of the hardware of the mall development and should carefully choose the trade and tenant mix because it helps in the day to day aspects of the shopping experience. A very patient approach is needed while keeping retailers in the mall. The time factor must always be kept in mind by the developer and the best retail formats should be brought in. Economic activity in the catchment area must be foreseen and leases planned with different retailers in a way that will be flexible for repositioning the mall in the days to come.

The whole purpose of the mall operating efficiently is to meet the needs of the shoppers and make way for the success of the retailers who are the business partners. The peak and non peak business hours or days have to be planned and the malls need special staff for meeting the needs of the shoppers during peak hours and the festive season for the convenience of the public. The benefit of the retailers lies in the maximum amount of time spent in the mall by the customer. There should be an effective plan for any emergencies in this business centre to ensure the safety of the customers. There should be regular safety drills and the mall and retailer's staff have to be trained to assist shoppers at such times. 

All mall operations should be efficient, effective and transparent. Provisions for the Common Area Maintenance (CAM) must be made by the retailers who run their shops in different malls or they should pay the service charge as it applies to them. The CAM charge should not be different each month and a budget for the service charge should be planned properly. Provisions should be made for major repairs well in advance by the operator of the mall and a yearly budget should also be prepared for the operations. This will bring in discipline to the functioning and give improved control. 

The time when the shopper decides to enter the shop and not when he enters it, will be largely influenced by the retailers treatment. Factors in a high street shop such as the signage, neat footpath, parking ease and entrance into the shop are the initial steps the cus- tomer takes in relation to the retailer. While selecting and designing the store it is necessary to consider these points. The retailers must make sure that there is good signage and clear corridors in the mall. Once the customer is in the shop what is important is the interaction with the customer, the easy possibility of looking through the goods and the appearance, display and feel of the store. The layout of the store is the first introduction of the brand to the customer. The brand's image can be made or broken through this and therefore needs to be carefully planned. Buying on impulse is likely to be more frequent in a warm and organized atmosphere.

This kind of organized retail shopping malls is still a novel idea in India. Few professionals are available with experience in the field to manage it. There is lack of exposure to the finer aspects of retailing and managing retail realty. It is hard to employ retail professionals with experience for both retailers and developers. To help us to learn we need to import the knowledge, processes and procedures and for a long term solution invest in training and making rofessional courses in order to obtain a suitable pool of talent.

There are innumerable opportunities for retailers and consumers given the size of the Indian retail market and the increased consumption expenditure and retail sales. The choice of a mall to shop might become the problematic decision for the consumer. As there are rising incomes and induction of western lifestyles, quality and experience matter the most. High quality and standards of services will create a lasting impression on the consumers.

read more:

Thursday, 23 July 2015

4BHK Villas for sale in Marathahalli, Bangalore at Zonasha Paradiso


Government of Karnataka feels that by bifurcating City Corporation of Bangalore (BBMP), the urban governance problem may be solved. Earlier, the proposal was discussed in the BBMP Council meeting held on 29th July 2013. It was argued that opinion of the elected representatives should be considered on the Bifurcation of Bangalore. The proposal has once again come up for consideration.

The proposal is being reviewed and comments against /for are being offered by the leaders, experts, and the public. Implications of the Bifurcation proposed are presented in this article. 

The first local body for Bangalore was created on 27-3-1862 during the British administration to provide/maintain civic services, and to develop the City. Its jurisdiction was excluding the Cantonment area existing on the north of the Municipal area. The Cantonment area was serving the civic needs of the Defense Department of the British as well as their administrative establishment. Later, a Cantonment Board was established on 1-8-1862 to govern the Cantonment area. These two local bodies continued till 8-4-1949 when the Bangalore City Municipal Corporation was constituted amalgamating the city and cantonment areas. The intention of amalgamation was to merge the two parts of the City artificially created by the British in spite of contiguous built up area of the City and dependant on each other for urban functions. The intention was also to avoid co-ordination problems in infrastructure maintenance and development. Urban governance by Bangalore City Corporation and later, as Bangalore Mahanagar Palike (BMP) was satisfactory. 

The proposal of Government in constituting seven city municipal councils and one Town municipal council around the City to control the developments in the areas all round the city failed as the standard of governance of these smaller local bodies were like bigger village panchayats. These local bodies were not able to control the unauthorized developments. They sanctioned developments violating the Master plan provisions and the building bye-laws. No developments for improvement were carried out and they were not able to maintain civic services. As the purpose of forming the local bodies was not served , they were abolished by Government and amalgamated with the BMP to form the Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagar Palike ( BBMP) in the year 2007.The jurisdiction was also increased to 825 sq. kms With 197 wards. This was the second amalgamation of local bodies in the City. The first was in 1949 when the City Municipality and the Cantonment Board were amalgamated. 

The City is undergoing very rapid growth due to migration after the introduction of Information Technology activities and enabled services, location of multi-national companies and number of engineering and medical colleges, busy International Airport, hotel facilities serving all income groups, etc. The city’s population increased to 95.88 lakh according to the Census of India-2011. BBMP failed to tackle the serious problems of the City. Garbage every where, pot holes on all roads, bad condition of foot paths, too many un-authorised constructions, land use violations, poor living conditions, etc resulted in Government proposing Bifurcation of the City. 

There is no firm policy in Government about urban governance. Amalgamation and bifurcation again and again is continuing in spite of the experience so far on such proposals. Bifurcation again will create confusion in the citizens, agencies, and the Government. The serious civic problems in the City are only due to bad governance. Proper governance will definitely solve the problems. Delegation of powers to efficient officials, fixing responsibilities and accountability on the officers , review of performances of administration work, non-interference by the vested interests in the day to day functioning of the civic body, transparency, considering good suggestions of citizens organizations and the public, curbing further growth of Bangalore, encouraging growth of counter-magnets like; Mysore, Hubli-Dharwad, Mangalore, Belgaum, Gulbarga, etc, are some of the the aspects to be considered for good governance. 

· BBMP will have to be downgraded as BMP. 
· Bifurcation will affect the ward boundaries, Legislative Assembly, and Parliamentary constituencies.
· Services, utilities, and facilities cannot be made independent for each subdivided portion. Total system will have to continue.
· Infrastructure projects under progress will be affected due to bifurcation by way of transfer of funds, repayment of loans to financing agencies, etc.
· One sub-division will have less civic amenities than the other sub-division.
· Private sector companies already involved with BBMP in some service will have to enter into separate agreements/entrustments with the bifurcated authority. They will have to deal with two agencies after bifurcation. 
· Revised Jurisdiction of agencies like; BWSSB, BESCOM, and government departments dealing with Bangalore City’s work, will lead to confusion and complicate their functions. 
· If a foreign company is selected by one subdivided authority to collect and recycle the City’s garbage, and if the other subdivided authority selects a separate company, then there will be conflicts and co-ordination problems.
· Staff strength of two bifurcated units will increase establishment expenditure. 
· Tools and plants for each subdivided authority will increase the expenditure.
· Records of BBMP and the civic agencies will have to be distributed according to the bifurcation.
· Urban statistics due to bifurcation will complicate the studies/ surveys including the Census figures. 
· Bifurcation will create co-ordination problems. The officials of one sub-division will blame the officials of the other subdivision for failure in maintenance of civic services.
· The confusion due to the process of re-organisation will continue for more than one year, and solutions to the civic problems will be postponed. 

Bifurcation of the City will be artificial and it will be practically working as one City. Government may therefore stop their confusing strategy to bifurcate and amalgamate after some time, and organize urban governance for effective maintenance of the City service.

Wednesday, 22 July 2015

2BHK & 3BHK Apartments for sale on Hosur Road, Bangalore at GR Sankalpa



We Indians are traditionally known for living amidst the natural environment and learn to appreciate gifts of nature. That should be so even today, save the necessary alterations in the environment for our economic development, which of course is inevitable. But, we should not fail to realize the consequences of our activities on the delicately balanced eco-system. Before it becomes too late to restore, there should be an alternative technology developed through which the balance of the eco system could be maintained without any drastic changes.

Urban Environment:

Lack of infrastructure facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas drive the people to the cities like Bangalore, where millions of them are already living in abysmal environments. As a consequence-

(1) The lung space within the cities and its surrounding areas will get affected.

(2) The cities get hotter due to the depletion of trees resulting in open spaces which lead to many side effects.

(3) Slums and squatter settlements are growing faster in the cities.

(4) Nearly 40% of India's urban population is living in a bad environment and have poor drinking water and sanitation.

(5) The city people are forced to live in a bad environment and have poor drinking water and sanitation.

Added to above, the cities have become unmanageable with uncontrolled pollution.

Therefore, environmental planning / landscape planning is essential to maintain breathable air quality and to live comfortably. The prescribed air quality standards as per National Standards and the European Union Countries standards is shown in Table-1. To achieve the air quality standards, robust planning and interventions are vital in order to maintain and monitor the breathable air quality and water quality which are in a jeopardy.

By altering Air Chemistry and Air Temperature due to cities' vehicular and industrial emissions, the following ill effects were highlighted by Mr. A. N. Yellappa Reddy in the Seminar, “Planning, Planting and Management of Trees in Urban Areas” held on 18th August 2004 at Bangalore.

Carbon Monoxide:

Nearly all of the global Carbon Monoxide (CO) pollution is caused by motor vehicles, as much as 82 per cent in major urban areas. About 67 million tonnes of odourless, colourless CO are emitted into the atmosphere each year in the United States of America.

Nitrogen Oxides:

Nitrogen Oxides - nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide contribute to the heavy brownish haze often seen over congested areas. Motor vehicles create about 43 per cent of the nitrogen oxides in the air.

Hydro Carbons:

Hydro Carbons (HC) are made up of a wide range of different hydrocarbon compounds. Most HCs in the atmosphere come from tailpipe emissions, but others come from the evaporation of gasoline during refuelling, gasoline leakage and poorly maintained fuel systems in order cars.

Carbon Dioxide:

During its lifetime, a car will emit Carbon dioxide (CO2) approximately equal to the car's weight. There is more CO2 in the atmosphere than any other emission mentioned here. Cars and trucks are responsible for about 20 percent of the total; the rest comes from power plants, industry and agriculture.

Sulphur dioxides

Cars and trucks add only a small amount of Sulphur dioxide (SO2) to the air. The rest are produced by the burning of high sulphur coal to generate electricity and other industrial processes.


Smoke, ash and other particles emitted from motor vehicles and industrial plants mix with dust blown up by the wind to make a particulate matter. Diesel engines consumes more fuel especially for transportation by trucks, buses and other heavy vehicles; whereas cars consumes less diesel.

CO2 in high concentrations in enclosed areas could cause death. In normal outside exposure, especially in cars stalled in heavy traffic could cause headaches and stress upon the heart. It interferes with the blood's ability to absorb oxygen, which results in the hampering of perception and thinking, slows reflexes and causes drowsiness. If inhaled by a pregnant woman, it may threaten the physical and mental development of the unborn baby.

NO2 could cause respiratory infections and lung diseases. They may also contribute to bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. NO2 reacts with HC in combination with heat and sunlight to create another pollutant, ozone. Some hydrocarbons, such as benzene, are known to cause cancer. CO2 contributes to the green house effect. Many scientists think that too much CO2 is causing the Earth to heat up. SO2 can cause variety of human health problems. They also combine with moisture in the atmosphere to form acid rain, which damages lakes, forests and man made structures throughout North America and Europe.

In addition to the above, the ill effects from heavy metals are increasing in urban environment and the same is shown in the table 2.

The builders of Bangalore have fixed the ecological boundary perhaps after assessing its carrying capacity. They also took care to incorporate essential eco-components of tanks, percolation tanks, Ashwath Kattas and gundtopus (tree groves).

In the year 1862, the first Inspector General of Forest Dr. Brandis deputed an eminent forester to assess the forest and forest management practices of old Mysore State.

The expert after going around the forest submitted a report to Inspector General of Forest stating that the general public and the village communities are managing the life supporting resources very efficiently and there is more to learn from the community than to teach them about life supporting resource management practices. He had mentioned that the villagers have incorporated a spiritual components of Gramadevatha in the tree groves. He has reported that in 13,000 villages, there are 19,000 gundtopus.

This clearly indicates that the present Bangalore city encompassed over 800 villages and each village was fully equipped with all eco-components of tanks, percolation tanks, Ashwath Kattas and gundtopus.

These Ashwath Kattas and gundtopus were catering to the ecological services to harbour birds, bees etc., They were also catering to the medicinal services to treat humans / animals.

The Ashwath Kattas and gundtopus were performing the function of lungs and tanks, percolation tanks were performing the function of kidneys.

The Bangalore city retained all these eco-components and until 1970s, the city was a cool retreat because it retained the grandeur of hills, wetlands and various hydrological and ecological components. Every visitor as soon as he/she entered the city enjoyed a sweety breath.

In stark contrast to the 1970’s, one could see and visualize the power of steel, cement and chemicals. Virtually citizens are smelling chemicals, breathing chemicals, touching chemicals and the residential localities are surrounded by garbage dumps and sewage lines.

The city has become a heat bone with a large number of heat islands. In summer, it becomes a smoke chamber filled with unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon particulate matter, noxious SO2 and SO3 and also terrestrial ozone. To be precise, one can see relentless encounter between brute matter of toxic load of gaseous and particulate matter filled in the ambient air.

In order to meet the demands of the burgeoning Bangalore, the State Government on Wednesday approved the revised draft Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) for Bangalore Metropolitan Area (BMA) for the next 10 years. As per the draft plan, the green belt area would be reduced from the existing 742 to 494

Planning in an urban environment is essential, because there is no minimal protection to the victims of pollution in the law. And also the tragedy is that right to development have become right to pollute. As a result, Bangalore’s land mass is filling with garbage, people and vehicles; therefore planning is essential. In addition to above, Bangalore has become unmanageable with uncontrolled pollution. As a result, poor people have been marginalized with virtually half of the urban dwellers forced to live in appalling slums.

Concluding Remarks : 

World Environment Week is celebrated in the first week of June every year and the theme of the year 2005 is “Green Cities Plan for the Planet”!. We should not be satisfied with that. In fact, such communication media should continue until our entire population develops an environmental consciousness. We have an instinct to save and preserve properties for our children. Similarly, we should consider the “environment” as one of the invaluable “properties” which need to be restored for our future generation. To adopt such a principle, we should be aware of the consequences of our activities on the environment. Further, we should also develop a sense of responsibility. For instance, if we happen to see someone cutting the branch of a road side tree, we should give up the attitude like “it is the duty of the forest department to take care of those trees”, or “if I cut the other branch, will it not be profitable for me also……….?” Instead, we must assume the responsibility for the tree and stop it from being felled and report to the concerned authorities. Let us be optimistic, if every one of us develop such attitude, there will not be any disaster for the roadside trees and other common resources as well. By doing so, the dream of Green Cities may be realised and also a place for healthy living.

Tuesday, 21 July 2015

2BHK & 3BHK Apartments for sale in Nagarabhavi, Bangalore at DS MAX Seno...


The Karnataka State Government announced in the legislature session during January, 2014 that suggestions will be invited from the stakeholders, non-governmental organizations, and the general public to introduce Mono Rail System in Bangalore. The facility as a feeder service is to see that commuters staying in far off areas will be able to reach metro stations, and continue their journey to their destinations. The Government is considering public- private partnership model for taking up the project. 

A few organizations interested in the project made presentations before the Chief minister who is keen to introduce this infrastructure facility. The proposal of Mono Rail is pending since the year 2005 without any action by the Government. For comfortable living and working, one of the important infrastructure essential is an efficient Rapid Rail Transit System in a large city like Bangalore with about ten million population. Bus transportation system will not be able to meet the heavy demand of commuters. Always there will be acute traffic congestion on roads, with about 300 traffic signals and 700 manned intersections, bad conditions of roads which are full of pot holes,pedestrian crossings, unscientific road humps etc. 

After delay of two to three decades to decide on the type of rapid transit system suitable for Bangalore, it was decided to take up Metro Rail, which is of high capacity compared to Mono Rail. Metro Rail System was taken up only on two corridors namely; East-west Corridor and North-South Corridor which intersect at Majestic area. 

The two metro Rail corridors do not cover all the localities of the City and as the First Stage itself is badly delayed , proposals were invited to provide a Mono Rail System as complementary service on corridors where Metro Rail service is not covered and as feeder service to Metro corridors. Metro Rail project was taken up by the public sector with a large investment of about Rs.11,609cr. The project cost in the present situation will be about Rs. 13,845 cr. 

Phase II of the Metro Rail Project was approved by the Government of India in its cabinet meeting held on 30-1-2014. The cost of the project is estimated to be Rs. 26,405.14 cr. It will take more than five years to complete and will not be ready before the year 2020. This opinion is based on the performance in the progress of Phase I Metro Rail Project so far. The citizens will have to bear the hazards of serious traffic congestion, road accident risk, dust, road diversions, one ways, due to Metro Rail work, etc till the Metro Rail and Mono Rail net works are completed i.e., upto year 2020. 

Monday, 20 July 2015

2BHK & 3BHK Apartments for sale off Sarjapur Road, Bangalore at Sairam Gardenia.


To mitigate hazards due to global warming, tree planting is to be encouraged. Tree lovers are struggling hard to retain trees affected from road widening by Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagar Palike (BBMP). They are organizing agitations, preventing persons entrusted to cut trees, and arguing with BBMP authorities. This happened a few years back when BBMP commenced widening of Sankey Road by removal of well grown trees. Similar agitations were held for widening of Sampige Road and road along Bangalore Palace. The Sankey Road residents were even arrested and later released . Their interest is not to affect environment by removal of trees, is to be appreciated. Sankey Road residents are showing the way to residents of other parts of the city to protect trees in their respective localities. Such active citizens should be honoured for their good citizenship. Such devoted people should be elected as corporators and legislators in the interest of improvement of the city. There should also be awareness for proper footpaths for use by pedestrians, pedestrian crossings, rejuvenation of vanishing lakes, etc.

BBMP may review its road widening program to see whether all the roads proposed for widening are required to be widened in view of the introduction of Metro Rail and proposal to take up Mono Rail networks, and bus transport as feeder service. Road traffic is expected to be less by about 40% after such multi-modal transportation is introduced. There is also a proposal by the Railways to introduce Suburban Rail to help the commuters. The efforts of some European cities is to create hardship for movement of private vehicles by prohibiting private vehicles in the central business district during peak hours, and levy of congestion tax for movement of private vehicles in the central area. The idea is to force the citizens to use mass transportation. But, we have to consider such policies only after effective provision of metro rail and mono rail net works and not till then. 

Some of the architects and builders interested in improving urban environment are providing vertical gardens in tall structures and on terraces. More and more instances of civic awareness are likely in future due to environmental degradation, global warming, etc. affecting living conditions. 

The good living conditions in earlier times with sincere administration in providing parks and tree planting for the benefit of people is mentioned herein. We have read in history books about the good administration by some rulers. It is mentioned among their achievements in the administration that the rulers formed avenues with trees and formed parks. The capital cities of the earlier rulers have roads with tree planting, good parks, landscaping, boulevards, public buildings with good landscaping, etc. Mysore, Delhi, Jaipur are examples of such cities. New Delhi developed by British rulers is an example of good roads with trees, parks, landscaping around heritage structures, etc. Moghul Kings contributed a lot for landscaping in their palaces and premises of heritage buildings. Even industrialists like Tatas have contributed to good tree planting in city like Jamshedpur. Hyder Ali developed Lal Bagh in Bangalore. During the Britishers rule, Cubbon Park was developed. Bangalore Palace area is another example of good tree cover around Palace building. Role of former army officers is to be appreciated for forming good cantonment areas providing wide roads with tree planting, parks and playgrounds, etc. Cities like; Bangalore, Belgaum etc, are examples of good urban development by army officers. Le Corbusier is remembered for his valuable contribution in the design of Chandigarh City where one third of the city area was used for forming parks, gardens, avenue trees, green strips, urban forestry, etc. Adequate provision for green spaces are made in Chandigarh for good environment.

In Singapore, green corridors are developed connecting parks and natural valleys. In Sao Paulo, Brazil, private sector is involved under public-private partnership to plant trees and monthly progress in tree planting reviewed. Such policies and programs are required to be introduced in large cities of India in the interest of improving environment.

BBMP has its own Horticulture Section . Most of the park areas reserved in BDA extensions and enforced in private layouts are lying as vacant spaces where debris and garbage are dumped. There are instances of encroachment also in the neglected park areas. BDA may develop the park areas before handing over its layouts and private layouts to BBMP for maintenance. 

The Horticulture Department and the Forest Department may also take up parks/mini forest projects in Bangalore to contribute towards bringing back the name of Garden City. Tree planting may be taken up in wider roads formed by BDA like Outer Ring Road and other roads.

In view of Global warming and indifferent weather conditions, serious action is necessary by civic agencies as well as private sector developers, builders, and Corporate companies to provide tree planting as much as possible in their projects.

The Karnataka High Court observed during November, 2014, that the state administration is not aware of the number of trees in Bangalore, how much green space is lost in the recent years to make way for high-rise buildings and infrastructure projects. The Honourable Court directed the State government to constitute a ‘Tree Authority’ under section 3 of the Karnataka Trees Preservation Act,1976. It was directed that the Authority has to closely examine every tree before it is fell. The aim is to ensure transparency, reduce air pollution, and maintain greenery. This was reported in Deccan Herald news paper dated 13-11-2014. It was mentioned in the press report that BBMP formed earlier two committees separately for Bangalore North Taluk and Bangalore South Taluk, but they have not met even once till date. Environmental experts commented that such lapses in governance is unfortunate. As the effects of Global warming is bad, Government should monitor actions by BBMP for improving greenery. 

Regulations for provision of parks and open spaces :

Earlier, 15% of the layout area was reserved for parks and open spaces in BDA extensions as well as private layouts. But, in the Master Plan – 2015, the provision was reduced to 10%. Due to this, the result is more of concrete surfaces and less of open spaces. At least, the same percentage or more should have been maintained in the interest of mitigating the hazards of deteriorating environment. Why not they follow the example of Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Sao Paulo in Brazil, and Chandigarh, etc. Master Plan-2031 which is under preparation by BDA , should make higher provision for parks and open spaces. It should be 15% of the layout area, this has to be ensured by Government while according approval to the Master Plan-2031. 

Tree planting is required in :

  • Parks
  • Boulevards
  • City roads and highways
  • Boundaries of playgrounds
  • Open spaces in public premises
  • Lands not fit for building purposes
  • Green Belt (Agricultural Zone)
  • Natural valley margins, and 
  • Apartments, and commercial complexes.

Suggestions :

1. The National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy, 2007 states that “It will be desirable to pursue a goal of 20-25% recreational land use area (excluding water bodies) which has been prescribed for metropolitan cities by the Urban Development Plan Formulation and Implementation (UDPFI) Guidelines in order to improve environment in large cities. This policy is to be enforced strictly by making adequate provisions for parks and open spaces in the master plans, and building byelaws. In BDAs Master Plan-2015 the UDPFI guidelines are not followed. At least in the next master plan, UDPFI guidelines may be followed.

2. Concessions in property tax may be introduced for every tree planted and maintained after the trees are maintained and grown up.

3. Hierarchy of road network may be planned to provide for adequate width for tree planting. In any road widening scheme, the existing trees should not be cut but additional traffic lanes provided by taking over road margin areas. 

4. In some commercial complexes, trees are removed in the frontage of the complex for parking of their vehicles. This should be prohibited and only entry of vehicles through a gate be allowed.

5. Trees are removed for road widening, transmission lines, etc. Double the number of trees removed should be planted and maintained. 

6. Bangalore Palace declared as taken over by government under The Urban Land Ceiling Act, 1976 earlier, and is said to be under litigation, may be provided with lot of tree cover to enable citizens to use it as a Third City Level Park in addition to Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park.

5. Government lands in Bangalore Metropolitan Area may be developed as tree parks/urban forests including the government lands after clearing the encroachments.

6. The Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP)-1984, provided two thirds of the Metropolitan Area reserved as Green Belt. In future master plans, areas for further urbanization may be proposed beyond the Green Belt with good connectivity instead of reducing the Green Belt area reserved already in the earlier master plans. 

7. The buildings allowed as permissible uses in the Green Belt area with 20% of the land as built up area with ground and one floor may be discontinued as it is observed that later without effective enforcement, violations are made increasing the built up area. It is suggested that buildings may be completely prohibited in the Green Belt area.

8. For improving the beauty of the cities, Corporate companies may be involved to adopt particular roads for beautification with tree planting by allowing limited advertisements for their own purpose. 

Environment and beauty of the city will improve by adopting the above policies. The resident welfare associations and other associations/forums may create awareness on these civic matters and convince the agencies for actions to improve the environment.